Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder In Adults

ICD-10 Code: F50.89

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is part of a cluster of diagnoses called the feeding and eating disorders.  Feeding and eating disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that include:

  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Binge eating disorder
  • Pica
  • Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder

Feeding and eating disorders are characterized by a persistent disturbance in eating behaviors.  These disorders are linked to alterations in the consumption of food or absorption of nutrients, and can result in severe distress, physical health problems, and psychosocial impairment.  People with anorexia nervosa are significantly underweight because they eat very little food in an effort to lose weight or prevent weight gain.  People with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa eat large quantities of food in a short period of time (called a “binge”); people with bulimia nervosa also attempt to prevent weight gain by compensating for these binges in an inappropriate way, usually by vomiting, excessively exercising, fasting, or misusing laxatives or other medications.  People with pica regularly eat non-nutritious, non-food substances.  People with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder have little interest in food or avoid many types of foods, which results in nutrition deficits.

Several of these disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, are characterized by serious disturbances in body image and a preoccupation with weight and shape.  Other disorders, including pica and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, are characterized by atypical eating behaviors but are not prominently associated with body image disturbances.  Some feeding and eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, cause the individual to be significantly underweight or malnourished as a result of their eating behaviors.  Other disorders, including bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, do not produce marked weight loss and are typically associated with normal or higher than expected weight.

What is Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder?

ARFID is a psychiatric disorder wherein an eating disturbance (such as lack of interest in food, avoidance of certain foods because of sensory characteristics, or concerns about potentially aversive consequences of eating) leads to one or more of the following:

  • Significant weight loss
  • Significant nutritional deficiency
  • Dependence on oral supplements or enteral feeding for nutrition
  • Serious impairment with social functioning
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Understanding Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

ARFID severity can range from mild to severe.  In severe cases, ARFID can lead to serious nutritional deficits and considerable impairment in social relationships.  Many people with ARFID also have other psychiatric conditions, most commonly anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual developmental disorders.

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How is avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder treated?

At this time, there is not enough scientific information to inform us about what treatments are effective for ARFID. We recommend that any individual struggling with a mental health or learning disorder speak to their doctor about it, and consider consulting with a therapist or other appropriate specialist.


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