Math impairments are characterized by one or more of the following domains:

- Number sense: has poor understanding of numbers, their magnitude, and relationships.
- Memorization of math facts: counts on fingers to add single-digit numbers instead of recalling the math fact as peers do.
- Accurate or fluent calculation: gets lost in the midst of arithmetic computation and may switch procedures.
- Accurate math reasoning: has severe difficulty applying mathematical concepts, facts, or procedures to solve quantitative problems.

Common characteristics of children with a math impairment are:

- Shows difficulty understanding concepts of place value, and quantity, number lines, positive and negative value, carrying and borrowing
- Has difficulty understanding and doing word problems
- Has difficulty sequencing information or events
- Exhibits difficulty using steps involved in math operations
- Shows difficulty understanding fractions
- Is challenged making change and handling money
- Displays difficulty recognizing patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing
- Has difficulty putting language to math processes
- Has difficulty understanding concepts related to time such as days, weeks, months, seasons, quarters, etc.
- Exhibits difficulty organizing problems on the page, keeping numbers lined up, following through on long division problems