Children of substance abusers appear to be particularly vulnerable to adolescent drug use, likely resulting from genetic and family dynamic factors with learned attitudes toward substance abuse. The age in which an individual begins to use substances has been shown to be a strong predictor for the development of substance use disorders over the lifetime. Peers are influential and mediate the avoidance of drugs, as well as both the initiation and maintenance of substance abuse. Several cognitive factors determine substance use and are often specific to each drug. This is usually related to the perceived risks and benefits associated with using the substance. There are several psychological factors that impact a young individual’s experience with substances. This includes whether they use the substance to produce positive feelings and avoid unpleasant ones, relieve tension and stress, reduce disturbing emotions, alleviate depression and anxiety, and gain peer acceptance.